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Hydrogen cell, another track for new energy vehicles?

日期: 2022-08-18
浏览次数: 1

Intensive introduction of relevant support policies in many places, and application demonstrations have successively landed.

Shanghai proposes that by 2025, about 70 hydrogen refueling stations will be built, the number of fuel cell vehicles will exceed 10,000, and the industrial scale of hydrogen energy industry chain will exceed 100 billion yuan; Shandong proposed that by 2025, a total of 10,000 fuel cell vehicles will be promoted and 100 hydrogen refueling stations will be built; Liaoning proposes that by 2025, the number of fuel cell vehicles (including buses, passenger cars, heavy trucks, tractors, sanitation vehicles, etc.) will reach more than 2,000, and more than 30 hydrogen refueling stations will be built

Recently, industrial policies or measures related to hydrogen energy have been intensively introduced in many places to support the development of hydrogen fuel cell industry.

Research reports of many securities institutions have suggested that 2022 will be the first year of the explosion of hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry. What is the difference between hydrogen fuel cell and lithium battery which is widely used at present? Is it another track for new energy vehicles?

'Lithium batteries store electricity, and hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity'

Hydrogen energy is a kind of abundant, green, low-carbon and widely used secondary energy, and it is gradually becoming one of the important carriers of global energy transformation. The reporter noted that 'low-carbon' was mentioned in many policies supporting the hydrogen fuel cell industry.

'Simply put, lithium batteries store electricity and hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity.' Ruan Yiliang, director of the marketing department of Weishi Energy Technology Co., Ltd., a technology company that focuses on the market operation of hydrogen fuel cell technology, said that hydrogen fuel cells mainly rely on the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen in the air to generate electric energy, and then drive the motor to drive the car. The emission during the whole cycle is generally only water, which can achieve 'zero carbon emission'.

Many pure electric vehicle owners report that the pure electric vehicles with lithium batteries on the market have some problems, such as short cruising range, obvious influence from low temperature environment and slow charging. In this regard, Ruan Yiliang said that compared with lithium batteries, hydrogen fuel cells have the advantages of high efficiency, environmental protection, strong environmental tolerance and short filling time, and can better meet the environmental requirements of long battery life, high temperature and cold working conditions.

However, for hydrogen fuel cell, there are still doubts about its safety, high production cost, and scarcity of raw metal platinum.

'The hydrogen fuel cell system already has relatively complete safety control measures.' Yi Liang believes. For the production cost, he calculated an account: at present, the cost of fuel cell stack can be controlled below 2,000 yuan /kW on average. With the acceleration of scale effect and localization process, it is estimated that the cost of fuel cell can be controlled below 1000 yuan /kW by 2025.

Hydrogen heavy truck becomes a breakthrough in commercial application.

Last year, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangdong, Henan and Hebei were successively listed as the demonstration and application urban agglomerations of fuel cell vehicles in China. The industry expects that by 2025, more than 32,000 fuel cell vehicles will be promoted in the five major urban agglomerations.

The data shows that in the first half of the year, the output of fuel cell vehicles has exceeded 1,500, and the sales volume is close to 1,400. The output and sales volume both exceeded 80% of last year.

In this regard, Pan Helin, co-director and researcher of the Digital Economy and Financial Innovation Research Center of International Joint Business School of Zhejiang University, believes that on the one hand, the support policies of various places have successively landed; On the other hand, it is because of related supporting upgrades. For example, in some areas, special hydrogen fuel vehicle operation lines have been opened, and infrastructure such as hydrogen refueling stations have been improved.

In the field of new energy, compared with lithium batteries, hydrogen fuel cells can better meet the environmental requirements of long battery life, high temperature and cold working conditions. Heavy trucks with large load, long battery life and high efficiency have become the breakthrough of commercial application of hydrogen fuel cells.

Yi Liang said that compared with traditional diesel heavy trucks, hydrogen heavy trucks have obvious advantages in environmental protection. Compared with pure electric heavy trucks, hydrogen heavy trucks have the advantages of short filling time and long cruising range, and basically don't have to consider the problem of 'winter cruising range anxiety'.

In March, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration jointly issued the Medium-and Long-Term Plan for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021-2035) (hereinafter referred to as the 'Plan'), which proposed that based on the basic conditions of local hydrogen energy supply capacity, industrial environment and market space, and combined with the development characteristics of the road transportation industry, the application of hydrogen fuel cells in medium and heavy vehicles should be focused.

Unpowered Energy, which is backed by Great Wall Motor, has entered the demonstration and application urban agglomerations of fuel cell vehicles in Beijing, Hebei and other countries, and a number of demonstration projects including 100 hydrogen heavy trucks on xiong'an new area Easy Line, agricultural batch logistics in Beijing Xinfadi, green logistics and transportation of hydrogen vehicles in Tianjin, etc. have been laid out in advance. Among them, 100 hydrogen heavy trucks of 'Easy Line' have landed, which is the first demonstration application scenario of hydrogen heavy trucks in China with large-scale intelligent network connection, vehicle-road coordination and line driving.

The data shows that in 2021, the sales volume of hydrogen heavy trucks in China was 779, a 42-fold increase year-on-year, and its share in the new energy heavy truck market increased from 0.7% in 2020 to 7.46%. According to incomplete statistics, since the beginning of this year, at least 16 hydrogen energy heavy truck projects and application demonstrations have been launched in China.

Complementary to lithium battery

According to the public information, in 2001, the national '863' program, a major science and technology project for electric vehicles, defined the 'three vertical and three horizontal' R&D layout. Among them, the 'three verticals' are hybrid vehicles, pure electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, and the 'three verticals' are batteries, motors and electronic controls.

However, since the launch of the 'Demonstration, Popularization and Application Project of 1000 Energy-saving and New Energy Vehicles in Ten Cities' in 2009, the development of fuel cell vehicles has lagged behind other 'two verticals' for various reasons.

However, in the process of accelerating the energy clean and low-carbon transformation in China, the development of hydrogen fuel cells has ushered in a turning point. The Plan states that the development and utilization technology of hydrogen energy, represented by fuel cells, has made a major breakthrough and provided an important solution for realizing zero-emission energy utilization. It is necessary to firmly grasp the general trend and opportunities of global energy transformation and development, and accelerate the cultivation and development of hydrogen energy industry.

Pan Lin believes that the core difficulty of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles lies in the logistics and transportation of hydrogen fuel. The volume of hydrogen is relatively large. No matter whether it is transported or used, the amount of hydrogen that vehicles can load is limited, and the cost of pressurizing equipment is relatively high. In the future, we should explore feasible technical solutions to reduce the difficulty of hydrogen storage and transportation.

Some enterprises and institutions are also accelerating the research and development of hydrogen fuel cell technology. Yi Liang said, 'We have successively completed the industrial layout of core products such as fuel cell engines and vehicle-mounted hydrogen storage systems, and key components such as membrane electrodes, bipolar plates, stacks, hydrogen storage bottles and high-pressure bottle valves.' Haima said that the company's 4th generation hydrogen fuel cell is under development, which will adopt higher power stacks and more efficient electric drive systems. The research team of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology has recently developed a new hydrogen fuel cell. Platinum is still used as the catalyst, but the required amount is reduced by 80% compared with the current one.

With regard to the future development of hydrogen fuel cells, the Plan makes it clear that the complementary development mode of fuel cell electric vehicles and lithium battery pure electric vehicles will be gradually established.

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